Primary tabs

The UCL Energy Institute has developed and regularly uses many different types of energy models for different purposes at UK, European and global scales. Several are directly applicable to other economies whilst others would require re-populating with local data.
On behalf the Department of Energy & Climate Change, the UK ETSAP Contracting Party, UCL serves as the technical institution participating in the current ANNEX XIII: Tools for Analysis of a Future Energy Revolution.
UKTM is UCL’s flagship model currently under development that will supersede UK MARKAL in portraying the UK energy system, from fuel extraction and trading, to fuel processing and transport, electricity generation and all final energy demands. The model generates scenarios for the evolution of the energy system based on different assumptions around the evolution of demands, future technology costs, measuring energy system costs and all greenhouse gases (GHGs) associated with the scenario. UKTM is built using the TIMES model generator. As a partial equilibrium energy system and technologically detailed model, it is well suited to investigate the economic, social, and technological trade-offs between long-term divergent energy scenarios.
The models offered by UCL cover the following categories:

Systems and technology models

Energy system models are technology-rich cost-optimising models that are used for energy technology assessment and decarbonisation pathway studies.

UK MARKAL UK energy systems optimisation model
UKTM-UCL UK energy systems optimisation model that supersedes UK MARKAL
ETM-UCL European energy systems optimisation model
TIAM-UCL Global energy systems optimisation model
ESME UK energy systems optimisation model
DynEMo UK dynamic energy systems model
OSeMOSYS Open-source energy system model

Built environment models

Built environment models examine different aspects of building decarbonisation and smart energy systems.
HIDEEM Bottom-up, household level health impact model
English Archetypes Bottom-up housing stock model
CaRB2 Bottom-up non-domestic stock model
SmartCED Energy demand management model that uses optimisation for controlling demand-side management in future intelligent grids

Transport: aviation and shipping models

Our transport models examine decarbonisation options in the international aviation and shipping sectors.
AIM Integrated assessment tool of the global air transportation system
GloTraM Techno-economic model of the global freight transport system, currently focused on international shipping

Network/Infrastructure models

Network and infrastructure models are used to understand systems that transport energy. Spatial and temporal factors are often very important for these systems. The electricity transmission and distribution systems are a good example but our research also includes gas networks and the development of transport sector infrastructure (e.g. for a hydrogen economy).
DEAM Agent-based, bottom-up, techno-economic model to understand electricity substation loads
EleServe Generates electricity load curves
SHIPMod Spatially-detailed supply chain and infrastructure optimisation model for a transition to hydrogen vehicles in the UK

Economic models

Economic models, often integrated with energy system models, are used to examine the wider impacts of changes in the energy system on the economy.
TIMES MACRO Plus Hybrid energy system and multi-sector economic growth model generator
CGE-UCL Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that includes natural resource and environmental considerations

Environmental models

Our environmental models enable us to understand the links between energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.
TIAM-UCL-IAM Integrated Assessment Model version of TIAM-UCL

Behavioural models

Behaviour models explore the interactions between people and energy use, with a particular focus on different actors and the uncertainties that arise from their heterogeneous behaviour.
BLUE A probabilistic dynamic simulation model to explore uncertainties due to different actors and interacting landscape


Other models include resource and exploratory models.
BUEGO Equilibrium crude oil resource model
Product Type
Focus Area
Low Carbon Development
Scope / Extension
Sub-national, Project, & Local/Community level
Methodological Steps
Spatial / Geographical Coverage Location
​Particularly UK, European and global scales
Related Content
Contact Name
Neil Strachan; Hannah Daly
Contact Email;
e-Learning available
Facilitated Learning Avalable
Case Studies / Manuals
TIAM-UCL (TIMES Integrated Assessment Model) ETM-UCL (European TIMES Model) VErsatile Data Analyst (VEDA) ANSWER MARKAL/TIMES System Documentation VEDA Tutorial ANSWER User's Guide The UK energy system in 2050: Comparing Low-Carbon, Resilient Scenarios (2013) Pathways to 2050 – Key Results MARKAL Model Review and Scenarios for DECC’s 4th Carbon Budget Evidence Base (2011) ‘UK MARKAL Modelling -Examining Decarbonisation Pathways in the 2020s on the Way to Meeting the 2050 Emissions Target’, Final Report for the Committee on Climate Change (2010) Pathways to a Low Carbon Economy: Energy Systems Modelling (2009) MARKAL-MED model runs of long term carbon reduction targets in the UK (2008) Scenarios and Sensitivities on Long-term UK Carbon Reductions using the UK MARKAL and MARKAL-Macro Energy System Models. UKERC Report (2007)